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Federal Census Schedule Information at the Maryland State Archives

1776 1778 1790 1800 1810 1820
1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880
1890 1900 1910 1920 1930

Search Census Indexes (1776/1778, 1870, 1880)
Bibliography of published Census Records at the Maryland State Archives
Census Records at the National Archives


Census of 1776

Beset by skyrocketing debts created by the military demands of the Revolution, Congress took measures to fill the empty coffers of the Continental treasury. On the 26th of December 1775 the members resolved to raise another three million dollars by the further emission of bills of credit.

Congress intended to secure the bills by levying a tax on each colony according to a quota to be determined by population. A copy of the resolution was sent to each of the now united colonies requesting that a census be made of the total population according to race, age, and sex. The results were needed to set the quotas. Not until June 1776 did the Council of Safety in Maryland send copies of the Congressional resolution to the Committees of Observation in each county. These extra-legal committees were authorized to employ persons to take the number of inhabitants and return the lists to them. The Council agreed to pay for the services of the census takers.

The census takers returns varied. Baltimore, Talbot, Dorchester, Queen Anne's, Caroline, and Anne Arundel counties listed only the heads of households, grouping the number of other individuals in the household by age and sex as is common in the early federal censuses. Other counties like Harford, Prince Georges, and Frederick named each of the individuals, giving their age, sex, and race. [Phebe R. Jacobsen, Archives' Bulldog, Vol. 1, No. 8]. You will find the 1776 census records under COUNCIL OF SAFETY (Census of 1776) [MSA S961]. The Census of 1776 is indexed in card index #46 in the searchroom.  It is also available online as MARYLAND INDEXES (Census Index) 1776-1778 [MSA S1419].  See also the book 1776 Census of Maryland by Betty Stirling Carothers located at REF A-2-2.


Census of 1778

This "census" was much less a census of all individuals living in the state than it was a means to determine who had not signed the Oaths of Fidelity. The law which demanded that all free male inhabitants take an oath or affirmation of fidelity to the state (Chapter 20 of the Acts of 1777) provided in Section 7 that the constable of every hundred prepare before March 1, 1778 (the deadline for taking the oath) an alphabetical list of all free male inhabitants over age eighteen on that date. The list should include those resident in the hundred and not out of state unless the individual was exempted from taking the oath. The Governor and Council were to make a list of all persons not taking the oath by comparing this "census" with the lists of those signing the oath in order to determine who would be subject to the treble tax specified in the law.

Constables were given considerable incentive to prepare the list because they would receive a per diem wage for their efforts and would be fined 200 pounds for failure to create the list. The lists were to be sent both to the Governor and Council and to the county courts. Surprisingly few of these lists seem to have survived. Our (Census of 1778) records are from the county courts and thus may be found in COAGSER. We have records from hundreds in Caroline (found in Land Records, Liber A), Charles, and Queen Anne's counties. These are no more than alphabetical lists of names of free males over 18, unlike the Census of 1776 which covered all ages, races and sexes. [Ben Primer, Archivists’ Bulldog, Vol. 1, no. 9]. See the following records:

Record Paper  Microfilm
CAROLINE COUNTY COURT (Land Records) A MSA C523 MSA CM247
CHARLES COUNTY COURT (Census of 1778) MSA C654 MSA CM1235
QUEEN ANNE'S COUNTY COURT (Census of 1778) MSA C1365 N/A

The Census of 1778 is indexed in card index #46 in the searchroom.  It is also available online as MARYLAND INDEXES (Census Index) 1776-1778 [MSA S1419].


Census of 1790

This is the first federal census. The county schedule lists the name of the head of household; number of free white males of 16 years and up, including the head of household; free white males under 16; free white females (some of whom may also be the head of household); all other free persons; and total number of slaves.

The schedules for Allegany and Calvert Counties do not exist.

The 1790 census MSA SM61 index is in book form, located at REF A-2-2.


Census of 1800

The schedule lists name of head of household; election district; number of free white males and females under 10 years of age, 10 and under 16, 16 and under 26, 26 and under 45, and 45 years and upward; all other free persons, except Indians not taxed; and total number of slaves.

The 1800 Census MSA SM61 index is in book form, located at REF A-2-2


Census of 1810

The schedule lists name of head of household; election district; number of free white males and females under 10 years of age, 10 and under 16, 16 and under 26, 26 and under 45, and 45 years and upward; all other free persons, except Indians not taxed; and total number of slaves.

The 1810 Census MSA SM61 index is in book form, and located at REF A-2-2.


Census of 1820

The schedule lists name of head of household; election district; number of free white males and females under 10 years of age, 10 and under 16, 16 and under 26, 26 and under 45, and 45 years and upward; number of free white males between 16 and 18 years; foreigners not naturalized; number of male and female slaves and free colored persons under 14 years, 14 and under 26, 26 and under 45, 45 and upward; all other free persons, except Indians not taxed; number of persons (including slaves) engaged in agriculture, commerce, and manufactures.

The 1820 Census MSA SM61 index is in book form, and located at REF A-2-2.


Census of 1830

The schedule lists name of head of household; election district; number of free white males and females in 5 year age groups to 20, 10 year age groups from 20 to 100, and 100 years and over; number of slaves and free colored persons in six broad age groups; number of deaf and dumb in three broad age groups; number of blind; number of foreigners not naturalized.

The schedules for Montgomery, Prince George's, Queen Anne's, St. Mary's, and Somerset Counties do not exist.

The 1830 Census MSA SM61 index is in book form, and located at REF A-2-2.


Census of 1840

The schedule lists name of head of household; election district; number of free white males and females in 5 year age groups to 20, 10 year age groups from 20 to 100, and 100 years old and over; number of slaves and free colored persons in six broad age groups; number of deaf and dumb; number of blind; number of insane and idiotic in public or private charge; number of persons in each family employed in each of seven classes of occupations; number of schools and number of scholars; number of white persons over 20 who could not read and write; number of pensioners for Revolutionary or other military service.

The 1840 Census MSA SM61 index is in book form, and located at REF A-2-2.


Census of 1850

The schedule lists name, age, sex, color (white, black, or mulatto) for each person; whether deaf and dumb, blind, insane, or idiotic; values of real estate owned; profession, occupation, or trade for each male person over 15; place of birth; whether married within the year; whether attended school within the year; whether unable to read and write for persons over 20; whether a pauper or convict.

The 1850 Census is the first to list each person in a household by name. It also contains separate schedules for Agriculture, Manufacturers, Mortality, and Slaves. Slaves are not listed by name in the Slave Schedules. Rather, the schedule shows the name of the slave owner, and for each slave shows age, color, sex, whether deaf, blind, insane, or idiotic, and whether a fugitive from the state.

The 1850 Census MSA SM61 index is in book form, and is located at REF A-2-2.

This index does not list free African Americans.

Census schedules for Baltimore City - courtesy of Pauline Leitner (transcriber) and Connie Burkett of US Gen Web
Census schedules for Baltimore County - courtesy of Pauline Leitner (transcriber) and Connie Burkett of US Gen Web.


Census of 1860

The schedule lists name, age, sex, color (white, black, or mulatto) for each person; whether deaf and dumb, blind, insane, or idiotic; values of real estate and of personal estate owned; profession, occupation, or trade for each male and female over 15; place of birth (state, territory, or country); whether married within the year; whether attended school within the year; whether unable to read and write for persons over 20; whether a pauper or convict.

The Census of 1860 MSA SM61 contains separate schedules for Agriculture, Manufacturers, Mortality, and Slaves. See the description of the Slave Schedules for the 1850 Census.

The 1860 Census index is in book form, located at REF A-2-2. This index is divided into two volumes: one for Baltimore City and County and one for the remaining counties. When using the Baltimore City/County index you can distinguish the city entries from the county entries by noting that the Baltimore City citations refer to wards while Baltimore County citations refer to districts.

Please note the 1860 Census index lists only the heads of households and the individuals in the household with different last names. It does not list the names of wives and children.

Census schedules for Baltimore City, Wards 1 & 2 - courtesy of Pauline Leitner (transcriber) and Connie Burkett of US Gen Web.


Census of 1870

The schedule lists name, age, sex, race (including Chinese and Indian) for each person; citizenship for males over 21; profession, occupation, or trade; value of real estate; value of personal estate; place of birth; whether father and mother were foreign born; born within the year; married within the year; attended school within the year; for persons 10 years old and over whether able to read and write; whether deaf and dumb, blind, insane, or idiotic. This is the first Federal Census to list all African Americans by name.

The Census of 1870 MSA SM61 contains separate schedules for Agriculture, Mortality, and Social Statistics.

The Census of 1870 indices are online for the following counties: 

Allegany MSA S1745  Anne Arundel MSA S1526  Baltimore City & County MSA S453  Calvert MSA S1618 Caroline MSA S1614  Carroll MSA S1746
 Cecil MSA S1615  Charles MSA S1631  Dorchester MSA S1632  Frederick MSA S1737  Harford MSA S1734  Howard MSA S1633
 Kent MSA S1613  Montgomery MSA S1735  Prince George's MSA S1736  Queen Anne's MSA S1609  St. Mary's MSA S1620  Somerset MSA S1616
 Talbot MSA S1619  Washington MSA S1747 Wicomico MSA S1634  Worcester MSA S1635

The Anne Arundel County index includes name, family number, age, sex, race, occupation, birthplace, month of birth and marriage. For all other counties and Baltimore City, the indices include the name, age, race, sex, birthplace, county, town or enumeration district or ward. All indices include the Maryland State Archives microfilm numbers for the census schedules as well as the page number.


Census of 1880

The schedule lists address; names of individuals in household; relationship to head of family; sex; race; age; marital status; born within the year; married within the year; profession, occupation or trade; number of months unemployed during census year; whether person is sick or temporarily disabled and if so, with what; whether blind, deaf and dumb, idiotic, insane, maimed, crippled or bedridden; attended school within the year; ability to read and write; place of birth of individual and parents.

The 1880 Census MSA SM61 contains separate schedules for Agriculture, Defective and Delinquent Classes, Manufacturers, and Mortality.

The index to the 1880 Census MSA SM62 is a soundex index on microfilm. See the Guide to Census Records in the microfilm room. For help creating soundex codes out of last names see the soundex converter at the National Archives & Records Management webpage or the soundex code handout available in the microfilm room and at the circulation desk. Please note that the 1880 Census index includes only the names of families with children 12 years old and younger. It does not include families and individuals without children or with children over 12. To make up for the problems with the soundex index, an Archives volunteer compiled a complete index for the 1880 census for Anne Arundel County MSA S1525.

If the individual lived in Baltimore City and you know his or her address, a map in the microfilm room shows the boundaries of the enumeration districts. For counties, use the enumeration district film (Reel M3274) to match the address with its enumeration district. See the description of the 1910 census for directions on how to locate an individual's address.


Census of 1890

Most of the 1890 Census MSA SM61 was destroyed by a fire in the Commerce Department Building in January 1921. The remaining information pertains to Union veterans and widows of Union veterans of the Civil War. The schedules list the name of the veteran; if he did not survive, the name of the widow and her deceased husband; the veteran's rank, company, regiment, or vessel; date of enlistment; date of discharge and length of service; post office address; any disability incurred by veteran; additional remarks.

The index to the Civil War Veterans in the 1890 census is in book form, located at REF A-2-2 in the search room. The same index is also available in electronic form on the search room computers only. The computer index indicates the Maryland State Archives microfilm numbers for the census schedules.


Census of 1900

The 1900 Census MSA SM61 lists address; names of individuals in household; relationship to head of family; race; sex; birth date; age; marital status; number of years married; mother of how many children; number of children living; place of birth; place of birth of mother and father; year immigrated to the United States; number of years in the United States; naturalization; type of occupation; number of months unemployed; whether attended school; whether can read, write, and speak English; whether home is owned or rented; whether home is owned free or mortgaged; whether home is farm or house.

The index to the 1900 Census MSA SM62 is a soundex index on microfilm. See the Guide to Census Records in the microfilm room. For help creating soundex codes out of last names see the soundex converter at the National Archives & Records Management webpage or the soundex code handout available in the microfilm room and at the circulation desk.


Census of 1910

The schedule lists address; names of individuals in household; relationship to head of household; sex; race; age; marital status; number of years of present marriage; number of children born to mother; number of living children; birthplace; birthplaces of parents; year of immigration; whether naturalized or alien; native language; trade or profession; nature of business; whether employer, employee, or self-employed; weeks out of work in 1909; ability to read and write; whether attended school since September 1, 1909; whether own or rent house; whether own house free or mortgaged; whether farm or house; number of farm schedule; whether Union or Confederate Veteran; whether blind, or deaf and dumb.

The Census of 1910 MSA SM61 does not have an index.

However, you can narrow your search of the 1910 Census by following this three step process: first, find the individual's address; second, match the address to an enumeration district; and third, scan the schedules of that enumeration district to locate the individual.

The process differs depending on whether the individual resided in Baltimore City or in one of the counties. If the individual lived in Baltimore City, you may discover the address several ways. If the person owned property, you may used the deed to that property. You may find the individual in the 1900 or 1920 Census, and, assuming he or she hasn't moved, use that address. You may also find the address on the death certificate of the individual or of a relative. Also, you may find the address in the 1911 Baltimore City Directory. Once you have the address, ask for the Baltimore City Enumeration District Fiche at the Circulation desk. Use the fiche to match the address to its enumeration district. Once you have the enumeration district, search through that district in the census, scanning for the individual's name.

If the individual resided in one of the counties, you may discover the address in several ways. If the individual owned property, you may use the deed to the property. You may find the individual in the 1900 or 1920 Census, and assuming he or she hasn't moved, use that address. You may also find the address on the death certificate of the individual or a relative. Once you know where the person lived, ask for the enumeration district maps at the circulation desk in the search room. Match the address to the enumeration districts outlined on the map. You may also use the enumeration district microfilm which describes the enumeration district boundaries.

Census schedules for Baltimore City (Ward 1 only) - courtesy of Pauline Leitner (transcriber) and Connie Burkett of US Gen Web
Census schedules for Baltimore County (first partial - ED 41) - courtesy of Pauline Leitner (transcriber)  and Connie Burkett of US Gen Web

As more of this census becomes available, it will be added to the above FTP subfolder.


Census of 1920

The 1920 Census MSA SM61 lists address; names of individuals in household; relationship to head of household; whether home is owned or rented; whether home is owned free or mortgaged; sex; race; age at last birthday; marital status; year of immigration to United States; whether naturalized or alien; year of naturalization; whether attended school since September 1, 1919; ability to read and write; place of birth; mother tongue; father's place of birth and mother tongue; mother's place of birth and mother tongue; ability to speak English; trade or profession; industry or business in which work; whether employer, employee or self-employed; number of farm schedule.

The index to the 1920 census MSA SM62 is a soundex index on microfilm. See the Guide to Census Records in the microfilm room. For help creating soundex codes out of last names see the soundex converter at the National Archives & Records Management webpage or the soundex code handout available in the microfilm room and at the circulation desk.


Census of 1930

The 1930 Census MSA SM61 lists place of abode (street, avenue, road, etc.; house number; number of dwelling house in order of visitation; number of family in order of visitation); name (name of each person in this residence on April 1, 1930--surname, then given name, then middle initial if any); relation (relationship of individual to the head of the family); home data (whether home was owned or rented; value of home if owned or monthly rent if rented; whether a radio set was owned; whether or not the family owned  a farm); personal description (sex; color or race; age at last birthday; marital status; age at first marriage); education (whether attended school or college any time since September 1, 1929; whether able to read or write); place of birth (birthplace of individual--state or territory if born in the United State or name of county in which birthplace is currently situated if foreign born; birthplace of father; birth place of mother); mother tongue of foreign born (language spoken in home before coming to the United States); citizenship (year of immigration to the United States; naturalization; whether able to speak English); occupation or industry (trade, profession or particular type of work done; industry or business; class of worker); employment (whether actually at work yesterday or the last regular working day; if unemployed, line number of the unemployment schedule); veterans (whether a veteran of the United States military or naval forces; what war or expedition); farm schedule (number on farm schedule).

Please note that the unemployment and farm schedules no longer exist.

There is no state-wide index for the 1930 census. There is an index in book form for Caroline and Queen Anne's Counties, which was compiled and donated by Trish Surles. The Maryland State Archives also possesses two copies of the book 1930 Census Enumeration Districts, which describes what areas are included in each district. Each book contains a printed finding aid which correlates the National Archives microfilm reel number with the Maryland State Archives microfilm reel number. Please note that a preliminary review of the census suggests that while all enumeration districts are included as indicated, the districts may not be presented in sequential order.

There is also Maryland related microfilm from the 1930 US Census in the Maryland Genealogical Society Collection, MSA SC 5527.


For more information see also:


BIBLIOGRAPHY of PUBLISHED CENSUS RECORDS
for Maryland/Counties

Maryland Allegany Anne Arundel Baltimore City Baltimore
Calvert Caroline Carroll Cecil Charles
Dorchester Frederick Garrett Harford Howard
Kent Montgomery Prince George's Queen Anne's St. Mary's
Somerset Talbot Washington Wicomico Worcester

Maryland

Allegany County

Anne Arundel County

Baltimore City

Calvert County

Caroline County

Carroll County

Charles County

Dorchester County

Frederick County

Harford County

Kent County

Montgomery County

Prince George's County

Queen Anne's County

St. Mary's County

Somerset County

Talbot County

Washington County

Wicomico County

Worcester County

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